The map above shows the patchwork of kingdoms, principalities, bishoprics, duchies, republics, cities, sultanates, etc. in and around Europe in 1500 CE/AD.
The map above shows the incredibly strange and complex border between Belgium and the Netherlands at Baarle-Hertog (Belgium) / Baarle-Nassau (Netherlands).
The map above is an Isochrone map which shows how long it would have taken someone to travel from Rome to the farthest reaches of the Roman Empire at its peak (roughly 200 CE/AD).
Travelling within the core of the Empire could have be done in under a week, but travelling all the way to the fringes would have taken someone more than a month.