The map above was created by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, who was a Pakistani nationalist and is often credited with coming up with the name ‘Pakistan.’
In Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever? he wrote:
“At this solemn hour in the history of India, when British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN—by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan.”
He also wanted to rename the whole sub-continent to Dinia instead of India, which would have had many successor states.
The map shows areas with Muslim majorities (Pakistan, Bangistan, etc.) or areas of significant Muslim influence or importance (e.g. Osmanistan). Needless to say the actual partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, went somewhat differently than that envisaged by Ali.
Under the two-nation theory Muslims and Hindus were both given their own homelands. However, Muslims made up majorities in both the Western and Eastern parts of British India.
Therefore, the Dominion of Pakistan, which became the homeland for Muslims, was divided between East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (present day Pakistan). Moreover, there were both large numbers of Muslims still living in the new Union of India and many Hindus living in one of the two halves of the new Pakistan.
The result was large scale migration and substantial violence with between 250,000 and 1.5 million people dying as result of the border changes.
The Princely States were exempt from having to join either India or Pakistan and could opt to stay independent. Hyderabad, the largest princely state and Osmanistan on Ali’s map, initially opted for independence.
While it’s population was largely (85%) Hindu, it’s ruling Nizam was Muslim. The Indian government did not feel comfortable having a potentially unpredictable state in the middle of the new Union, and decided to annexed Hyderabad in 1948.
Jammu and Kashmir on the other hand had a majority Muslim population (77%) but it’s ruler, Hari Singh, was Hindu. It had been expected that he would join the new state of Pakistan, but an insurgency just before partition resulted in Singh asking India for military aide.
India obliged but took control of most of the state with the rest coming under the control of Pakistan. Singh signed an ascension agreement with India, which has resulted in the very complicated situation that still exists to this day.
Pakistan itself would face its own partition as a result of the Bangladesh Liberation War or Pakistan Civil War in 1971, which resulted in independence for Bangladesh and Western Pakistan continuing on as Pakistan.
And while it seems unlikely that the three states will ever become one again, the concept of an Indo-Pak Confederation still exists.
If you’d like to learn more about the incredibly complex history of India, Pakistan and partition the following books may be of interest:
- Midnight’s Furies: The Deadly Legacy of India’s Partition
- Indian Summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire
- The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan
- India: A History. Revised and Updated
- The Idea of Pakistan
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Pramod Joshi says
India before Aug 15,1947 was a nation of Multi-cultural, Multi-religious people. After partition a sizable section of Muslim population decided to move to Pakistan. There was no issue of Hindu and Muslim Homelands. At least present day India is not a Hindu Homeland. It is India which evolved in thousands of years. It is still Multi-cultural, Multi-religion nation with a secular State. Muslim population in India is roughly equal to Muslim population of Pakistan.
Abdulla Mtp says
*India is the largest muslim populated country in the world. 🙂
Huzaifah Bin Azhar says
Abdullah Mtp,India is third largest Muslim population country in the world, Indonesia is first.
That is why Indonesia become not stable and create another tendency of radicals to grow, because a group of people take the truth in the name of the majority of the people. And this condition is left just like that so they feel to have the right to the truth of their actions.
The purpose of religion is for political purposes. Look at the founders and present heads of all major world religions. The vast majority of bible was written by Kings and High priests, King David, King Solomon, Moses, Joshua (military leaders), High Priest Jeremiah and so – on. The one of the major wishes of the jewish faith is for the Messiah to return and rule them. Mohammad became the leader of all of arabia. The pope is a prince, and all European Christian Churches had their local King as their head, eg Queen Elizabeth.
Im not sure how much more obvious religion can be.
Religion has always been an instrument for the present or wanna be rulers to justify and shape their subjects in some way to their benefit. its never about belief, that perspective is only understood by simpletons who dont see the big picture.
The Wisdom says
Índia is the largest world’s largest Hindu , Jain , Lingayat ,Buddhist, Sikh ,Taoist ,Confucionist ,Shindoist shinto ,Shaman Animist ,Parsi Zoroastrian ,Christian , Bahai ,jew , other sincretical and folclorical traditions ,philosophies and religions and not only Muslim Sufi etc population and even the whole Planet Earth every ,Planets ,every Universes and Every Gakaxies really do belong to Bharat !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
India has always been secular since olden times, its because majority of its people are hindus which allows difference of opinions and has no hate preached againest other Religions unlike other middle eastern Religions. Its only after islamic invasions and corresponding barabarism in destrying hindu temples and forcefull conversions that made its people agressive and turned people against each other. Even this idea of division on basis of religion is created by radical islamic population who never want to live or see things which are non islamic. While considerable amount of Muslim population stayed in india rejecting the idea of pakistan and chose to be secular india. Which is why now muslum population of india and pakistan is same. pakistan on other hand cleansed non muslims from their country by persecution there by making islamic country.Pakistan is perfect example on why countries fromed and ruled on basis of religion always becomes failed state.
Muhammad awais says
Nice joke Dexter . Maybe you don’t know that Hindus are divided into four groups , they consider shudras(the lowest considered group ) as inhuman and don’t even want to touch them. Pakistan has a better army than India , so if you consider Pakistan a failed state then what do you think about India? India has a lot more poverty than Pakistan . You are a kid who got a laptop as a birthday present and started playing around the web .
Joke of the day
1-Hindus have only 4 divisions according to their profession but muslim brotherhood is radically divided in shiya, sunni, daudi, bohra, bareilwi and so on countless sects differentiated by their faith
2- total indian armed security forces (defence, para and police)
are a lot more than entire population of pakistan and afganistan
And…. We are capable to gift laptops to our children as birthday present…. Because our governments distributed free laptops to students in the quantity a lot more than the entire no. of laptops, PCs and smartphones in pakistan
If map you showed was correct, Pakistan will have nothing but an emergency laden Government to keep all sections together, army then Ruling. People of Pakistan will see dark days full of military men and see no freedom. Pakistan in its current scenario is same as it can not rule without military. Democracy will be buried FOREVER.
Mr. Horrible says
Can’t you see bangistan and pakistan are two different independant states, definitely all states must have their own governments just look at your foolish comment and ask your self about your caliber and qhat you are looking and commenting at?
Dipesh Bhoir says
why do this Pakistani’s put all there deficits on India
– killed there own best leader ‘Benazir Bhutto’ under the name of Islam.
Even Indians saw her as an idol.
Arguably best politicians Pakistan had.
whose responsible? (Gazawa Hind Forces / So Called Islamic Terrorist)
– destroyed dream to be secular state by ‘Muhammad Ali Jinnah’ under the name of Islam.
He ate pigs
He always saw himself as an Hindustani
whose responsible? (Gazawa Hind Forces / So Called Islamic Terrorist)
even India had no right over Kashmir kingdom, Hyderabad kingdom, Sikkim kingdom, Tibet kingdom, Junagad Kingdom
even Pakistan has no right over Kashmir kingdom, Baluchistan kingdom, Junagad Kingdom.
there were even Nepal Kingdom, Bhutan Kingdom, Shri lanka, Maldives, Andaman and some more
– The main center of Pakistan was always East-Bengal (present day Bangladesh)
– when Pakistan invaded Baluchistan kingdom, India invaded Hyderabad kingdom, china invades Tibet kingdom, Sikkim, Kashmir fearing they would join India later as we all know Tibet now belongs to China as well some part of Sikkim and Kashmir as well.
– Junagad Kingdom when tried to join Pakistan, Jinnah said i don’t want any problems with India and then Hindu majority revolted against the royal sultan family of Junagad Kingdom and when they ran away to Europe with there all treasure, referendum was organised where Pakistan lost horribly with 14 votes only where as India got about 12 Lakh and few thousand votes.
– Andaman was invaded by freedom fighters even before independence with the help of japan. British divided india into British Burma and British India when they felt they will loose Burma any way.
– Kashmir joined India because Pakistan invaded it. and india did not get POK because there was posiblity of kashmir civilians being killed. and if youdo know who was first prime minister of india, its “Pandit Jawarlal Nehru” a kashmiri Pandit.
understand this guys, the politicians are fooling you all.
A. Khan says
The truth is that the Muslims of the Subcontinent were ripped off in 1947. This map tells the truth.
fedrick henry says
It was never the place of the Muslim. The invader must be kept out but India maintains being a secular country. Muslim population in India keep growing. where are the Hindus, Christian, Sikh, Zoroastrians and jain in Pakistan?
VINOD MISHRA says
Great land of Hindus exists from Afganistan to Myanmar end. Others only came from outsides and satteled here because of greatness of this land. Jay Hind Jay Bharat.
The Wisdom Returns says
Ah ah ah jokers and jokes fakers and fakes everywhere on NET and Planet Earth except for me
The Absolute Truth by The Real Gods and Our Hindu Teachings says
Also every lies , wrong , very old stories and stuff and bad useless things which is typed written said about Bharat are false myths and are not History but only stories and nothing more and that caste story is not History and was , are and is lies told by “uk””usa” every west and westernized which believe on lies and are frustrated brainwashed biased bad losers against Bharat . There are much more and very much good usefull stuff untold unseen unwritten unsaid unlistened about Bharat which are not convenient to say in west which does not accept The Truth but only accepts lies and does not realise the Real Truth The Realities The Major Realities and are so extremely very much unupdated . britishers were the ones which for being prejudiced racists do not even wanted to see , listen ,value or touch Hindus and all other easterners or oriental ones and their stuff but only steal some stuff which they are interested . Westerners do not even can stand with Hindus Chinese all other in Asia , muslim , persian etc and their stuff their music , their cinema and films series and soap operas etc their tv , uses, costumes, traditions Religion Philosophies Culture Civilization Arts , Martial Arts etc The so slow west , westerners and westernized cannot catch the so quick easterners Hindusthan , Zhonghua etc they are too fast so rapid .
Abid bahar says
So you say India is a secular state!!! Ha, ha ha!!!! Ha ha!
Jan Soper says
You are frequently using it’s, instead of, its. Remember, it’s is a contraction for “it is”. Please don’t use it when your meaning is the possessive “its”. It really distracts from your otherwise interesting site!
day dreaming is a bad habit